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Frequently Asked Questions

Updated November 30, 2021


When and where can I be vaccinated?
Who should be vaccinated?

All adults should consider being vaccinated to prevent COVID infection. The Pfizer vaccine is approved for anyone 12 years or older; the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson Janssen vaccine is approved for anyone 18 years or older. People with significant allergies and pregnant or nursing mothers should consult with their medical provider before getting vaccinated.

Can I get the vaccine if I'm pregnant or have a chronic disease like diabetes, asthma, kidney problems?

If you are pregnant, you can receive the vaccine. Getting the vaccine during pregnancy can protect you from severe illness from COVID-19. If you have questions about getting vaccinated, a conversation with your healthcare provider who knows your medical history might help but is not required for vaccination. The vaccine has been found to be safe and effective in people with various conditions that are associated with increased risk of severe disease. This includes hypertension, diabetes, asthma, pulmonary, liver or kidney disease, as well as chronic infections that are stable and controlled.

I’ve already had COVID; can I be vaccinated?

Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:

  • Research has not yet shown how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again after you recover from COVID-19.
  • Vaccination helps protect you even if you’ve already had COVID-19.

Evidence is emerging that people get better protection by being fully vaccinated compared with having had COVID-19. One study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than 2 times as likely than fully vaccinated people to get COVID-19 again.

If you were treated for COVID-19 with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are unsure what treatments you received or if you have more questions about getting a COVID-19 vaccine.

How much does the vaccine cost?

There is no cost to you to be vaccinated. If you have health insurance, vaccine providers (including Salt Lake County Health Department) may bill your insurance a vaccine administration fee. If you do not have insurance, you will not be charged.

Is the vaccine safe?

In the United States, there are many steps in place to make sure vaccines are safe and effective. These steps include clinical trials and reviews by many independent scientists, medical professionals, and public health experts. The COVID vaccine has undergone these rigorous steps, just like all vaccines; no steps were skipped or rushed. Learn more at

Is the vaccine safe for people from multicultural communities?

The COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective for all races and ethnic backgrounds. Scientists have tested the vaccine using best practices across all racial/ethnic demographics to ensure it will have the most productive result for all communities. We recognize there can be a lack of trust in vaccinations—both historically and now, particularly among people of color—but as COVID-19 continues to impact diverse and multicultural communities at disproportionate rates, protecting our communities of color is essential, and the most effective protection available is to be vaccinated.

Does Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen vaccine contain fetal cells?


While fetal cell lines were used in the development and testing process, the vaccines themselves DO NOT contain any fetal cells.

Is it against religious beliefs to get vaccinated?

No major religion has explicit, doctrinal objections to vaccinations. Only two religious groups―Christian Scientists and the Dutch Reformed Church―have demonstrated a precedent of widely rejecting vaccinations, but even these are not explicitly laid out in their doctrine.

Can I choose which brand of vaccine I get?

You will receive the brand available at the location you visit, and which brand is available at each location can change regularly so you cannot expect a specific brand at a particular location (unless you are between the ages of 12-17, in which case, you will receive Pfizer).

How did they come up with the vaccine so fast?

Lessons learned from previous vaccines that were meant to treat similar diseases caused by coronaviruses (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) helped expedite the vaccine for COVID. For example, research on a coronavirus vaccine for SARS began in 2004!

Will the vaccine hurt? What are the side effects?

The vaccine is delivered as an injection in the arm, like other typical vaccines. On the arm where you got the injection you may experience some pain and swelling. Some people may experience a mild fever and fatigue, aches, chills, or headache for a day or two. These side effects are more common after the second dose and in younger people. These reactions are a sign that your immune system is revving up and doing what it’s supposed to do. In most cases, mild discomfort from fever or pain is normal. Contact your doctor or healthcare provider:

  • If the redness or tenderness where you got the shot increases after 24 hours
  • If your side effects are worrying you or do not seem to be going away after a few days
Can the vaccine give me COVID?


The vaccine does not contain any live virus and cannot give you COVID.

How does the vaccine work? Will it affect my DNA or genes?


The vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna use a technique known as mRNA, or messenger RNA. Think of this technique as the vaccine giving the cells in your body a message with detailed instructions for how to create antibodies against COVID — in this way, the body learns how to protect itself if or when the real virus shows up. The mRNA vaccines don't use the live virus that causes COVID, nor does the mRNA get into the cell's nucleus, which is where our DNA (genetic material) is stored. In short, these vaccines protect you from COVID and they do not alter or affect your genes in any way.

The Johnson & Johnson Janssen vaccine is an adenovirus vector vaccine, which uses double-stranded DNA to create an immune response in the body. Instead of using mRNA technology within the vaccine, the vaccine itself helps the body to produce its own mRNA to tell your cells to create harmless spike proteins. This triggers your immune system to produce antibodies that are now prepared to fight the harmful COVID-19 spike proteins if you come in contact with them. This type of vaccine has been around for years, most famously used to fight Ebola.

If I have allergies, should I be concerned?

People with severe allergies who have experienced anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic response that often involves swelling, hives, lowered blood pressure and in severe cases, shock) in the past, should talk to their doctor or vaccine provider about how to safely get the vaccine and what precautions to take.

Can I get the vaccine if I'm undocumented?


We will not ask about legal status for any reason. Additionally, any information shared with public health is private and protected information and will NOT be shared with anyone, including other agencies of any kind.

Will receiving the vaccine count as "public charge?"

No, receiving vaccination will NOT count against you under the public charge rule.

How long will it take to work?

For both the Pfizer and the Moderna vaccine, you will be considered fully protected 14 days after your second dose. For the Johnson & Johnson Janssen, you will be considered fully protected 28 days after your first and only dose.

Do I need two doses?

Depends on the brand you receive. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require two doses to be fully effective.

For the Pfizer vaccine, you should get the second dose 21 days OR LATER after your first dose.

For the Moderna vaccine, you should get the second dose 28 days OR LATER after your first dose.

For the Johnson & Johnson Janssen vaccine, you only need one dose.

When should I get the second dose?

If you receive the Pfizer vaccine, you should receive the second dose 21 days or later after your first dose. If you receive the Moderna vaccine, the second dose is 28 days or later after the first dose.

You do not need to receive the second dose precisely on the 21st or 28th day, though it is recommended you receive as close to that time as possible.

Are booster doses needed after the series is completed?

A patient is considered fully vaccinated ≥2 weeks after a 2-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series or ≥2 weeks after a single dose of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine.

Boosters are recommended for people at highest risk for severe COVID-19 who received both doses of Pfizer (and no verification, doctor's note, etc. is needed):

  • people 65 years and older and residents in long-term care settings should receive a booster shot of Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine at least 6 months after their Pfizer-BioNTech primary series,

  • people aged 50–64 years with underlying medical conditions should receive a booster shot of Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine at least 6 months after their Pfizer-BioNTech primary series,

  • people aged 18–49 years with underlying medical conditions may receive a booster shot of Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine at least 6 months after their Pfizer-BioNTech primary series, based on their individual benefits and risks, and

  • people aged 18-64 years who are at increased risk for COVID-19 exposure and transmission because of occupational or institutional setting may receive a booster shot of Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine at least 6 months after their Pfizer-BioNTech primary series, based on their individual benefits and risks.
How long will the vaccine last? Will I need another one next year?

We don't know yet. It’s possible that coronavirus vaccinations will become an annual event, just like the flu shot. Or it may be that the benefits of the vaccine last longer than a year. We have to wait to see how durable the protection from the vaccines is.

What happens after I get vaccinated?

It is important to continue following COVID precautions even after you've been vaccinated; it can take time after vaccination for the body to build its immune response. We will also need a large portion of our population vaccinated before we can begin phasing out face coverings, social distancing, and other infection prevention precautions—and that will take several months.

What if I lose my COVID-19 vaccination card?

To request your own immunization record, you must be 18 years or older. If you are requesting the record of a minor under 18, you must be the child's parent or legal guardian at the time of the request.

Immunization records are protected, confidential records so you must prove your identity before you may receive the record.

You can request an immunization record four ways:

  1. From your healthcare provider
    Most healthcare providers in Utah are connected to the Utah Statewide Immunization Information System (USIIS). Contact your provider and ask if they can give you an Official USIIS Personal Utah Immunization Record. If your provider does not participate in USIIS, they can print your immunization record from their own medical record system.

  2. Through the Docket mobile app
    (note that Docket is NOT developed or maintained by SLCoHD)
    • If your COVID vaccine is not displaying in Docket: call Docket at 385-286-0296 or 855-222-7531 (available Monday through Saturday from noon to 6pm) and provide valid documentation to have it added.
    • If your record in Docket does not show another vaccine you've received, contact the provider who gave you that vaccine and ensure they have submitted your receipt of the vaccine to USIIS
    • If you are having problems with the Docket app:
  3. From the Utah Department of Health's Utah Statewide Immunization Information System (USIIS)
    Submit a completed, notarized USIIS Immunization Record Request form to:
    PO Box 142012
    Salt Lake City, UT 84114-2012

    Phone: 801-538-9450
    Fax: 801-538-9440

  4. From the Salt Lake County Health Department
    Complete a medical record release form (formulario de solicitud médica), print the completed form, sign it, and bring it along with photo identification to one of our immunization clinic locations. Note that we CANNOT release immunization records over the phone or over email because we are required by law to verify your identity.
Can employers require vaccination?

Employers have the right to compel their workers to be vaccinated. Many hospital systems, for example, require annual flu shots. But employees can seek exemptions based on medical reasons or religious beliefs. In such cases, employers are supposed to provide a “reasonable accommodation” — without a coronavirus vaccine, for example, a worker might be allowed to work if they wear a mask, or to work from home.

Will I have to quarantine if I'm exposed at school/work if I'm vaccinated?

Most fully vaccinated people with no COVID-like symptoms do not need to quarantine, be restricted from work, or be tested following an exposure to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, as their risk of infection is low. However, they should still monitor for symptoms of COVID-19 for 14 days following an exposure. Exceptions where testing (but not quarantine) is still recommended following an exposure to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 include: Fully vaccinated residents and employees of correctional and detention facilities and homeless shelters.

Can the vaccine cause fertility problems?

No, getting the vaccine will not affect fertility. Women actively trying to conceive may be vaccinated with the current COVID-19 vaccines.